Sign On Now To Support Gender Rights In The Crimes Against Humanity Treaty

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3 December 2018

Mr. António Guterres
Secretary-General of the United Nations
Room S-3700
New York, NY 10017
United States of America

Cc:
Mr. Huw Llewellyn
Director of the UN Codification Division
United Nations Headquarters
Room No. DC2-0570
New York, NY 10017
Via email: llewellyn@un.org

 

Re: “Gender” in the Draft Crimes Against Humanity Convention

Dear International Law Commission Members,

We, the undersigned 583 non-governmental organizations from 103 countries, write to you regarding the draft crimes against humanity (CAH) convention pending with the International Law Commission. The Commission has called for states and civil society to provide submissions with their final commentaries on the draft convention by 1 December 2018. We urge the Commission to remove the definition of gender from article 3(3) of the draft crimes against humanity convention, or in the alternative, replace it with the definition of gender put forth by the Office of the Prosecutor for the International Criminal Court (ICC).1

Strong language on crimes against humanity that complies with existing human rights law would be an invaluable tool for confronting impunity and enhancing state efforts to prevent and punish gender-based crimes. However, a text that fails to reflect the current human rights definition of gender could sideline women; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons; and other marginalized groups. It could also result in even greater impunity for gender-based crimes amounting to crimes against humanity.

While international human rights precedents recognizing gender as a social construct are abundant, there is little jurisprudence related to gender under international criminal law. This significantly raises the importance of gender in the proposed text. The draft produced by the Commission and handed to the UN General Assembly 6th Committee next year will significantly contribute to the legal understanding of gender and marginalized groups. For this reason, we underscore the importance of omitting or updating the proposed definition of gender in article 3(3) of the draft.

A primary concern identified in expert civil society consultations is that the draft CAH treaty adopts the definition of gender from the Rome Statute. It states, “it is understood that the term ‘gender’ refers to the two sexes, male and female, within the context of society.” Unfortunately, the ICC has never successfully prosecuted a charge of gender-based persecution, arguably because its definition is opaque.

Over the last two decades, numerous regional and UN human rights mechanisms including treaty bodies, experts and jurists have adopted language that recognizes the social construction of gender.2 Notably, the Rome Statute’s definition has never been adopted again in any other human rights document or mechanism. The ICC’s own Office of the Prosecutor (OTP), in turn, has also adopted the understanding of gender under international law. Its 2014 publication, “Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes,” clarifies the definition of “gender” under the Rome Statute: “‘[g]ender’, in accordance with article 7(3) of the Rome Statute... refers to males and females, within the context of society. This definition acknowledges the social construction of gender, and the accompanying roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes assigned to women and men, and to girls and boys.”3 Accordingly, the policy paper distinguishes “gender” from the term “sex” which refers to “the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women.”4 OTP’s definition provides clarity and reflects the years of codification of the understanding of gender as a social construct. It is the only definition of gender under international criminal law to arise since the Rome Statute.

“Finally, other than “gender”, no other protected class under persecution is defined in the draft convention. Thus, including a definition may imply that persecution on the basis of gender is secondary or qualified and not equivalent to other persecutory categories.”

Globally, sexual and gender-based crimes remain the least-condemned crimes in conflict. According to UN Women, “narrow definitions of sexual violence codify gender inequalities preventing access to justice to many survivors and making the implementation of international conventions and frameworks difficult.”5 The proposed treaty presents a unique opportunity to reduce obstacles to prosecuting sexual and gender-based crimes. A text that reflects the current status of human rights law would help to ensure that the CAH convention does not reinforce the sidelining of women, LGBTI persons and other marginalized victims. It could assist States in their efforts to prevent, punish and protect against gender-based crimes, sending the message that such violence is unacceptable, that it will not occur with impunity, and that all survivors’ rights will be upheld.

We therefore recommend to the International Law Commission that the definition of gender
either be removed or revised in the draft crimes against humanity convention using the definition of gender put forth by the Office of the Prosecutor for the International Criminal Court.

For more information, please contact:

  • Jessica Stern, jstern@outrightinternational.org, Executive Director, OutRight Action
    International, New York, United States
  • J.M. Kirby, Esq., kirby@madre.org, Director of Human Rights Advocacy, MADRE,
    New York, United States
  • Lisa Davis, davisl@mail.law.cuny.edu, Associate Professor of Law and Co-Director, The
    Human Rights and Gender Justice (HRGJ) Clinic at the City University of New York
    (CUNY) School of Law, New York, United States
  • Rene Urena, rf.uruena21@uniandes.edu.co, Associate Professor of Law, The Center
    for Socio-Legal Research at the Universidad de Los Andes School of Law, Bogotá,
    Colombia

Sincerely,

  • Abortion Rights Coalition of Canada, Vancouver, Canada
  • Access Chapter 2, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Accountability International, Cape Town, South Africa
  • Action de Solidarité des Femmes pour la Femme et l'Enfant, en sigle "ASOFFE", Uvira, République Démocratique d Congo
  • Action pour la Lutte Contre l'Injustice Sociale (ALCIS), Bukavu, République Démocratique du Congo (RDC)
  • Adhikaar, New Delhi, India
  • Advocates for Youth, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Afghan Women's Organization for Equaity, Herat City, West Region/Afghanstan
  • Agency for Economic Development & Empowerment, Monrovia, Liberia
  • AIDS Information Centre-Uganda, Kamapala, Uganda
  • AIM, Geneva, Global
  • Akahata A.C., Buenos Aires, Argentina/Latin America
  • Akina Mama wa Afrika, Kampala, Uganda/Africa
  • Aliados / hombres por la igualdad de género, Lima, Perú
  • All Out, New York, United States
  • All Survivors Project, London, Global
  • Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic, Yale Law School, New Haven, United States
  • Alliance for Choice, Belfast-Antrim, United Kingdom
  • Alouen, Algiers, Algeria
  • Alternative Law Forum, Bangalore, India
  • American Jewish World Service, New York, United States
  • American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., United States
  • ANDISEX, Jinotepe, Nicaragua
  • API Equality-LA,Los Angeles United States
  • Arab Foundation for Freedoms and Equality (AFE), Beirut, Lebanon
  • Arc International, Canada
  • Arus Pelangi, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • ASEAN SOGIE Caucus, SouthEast Asia
  • ASEAN Youth Forum, Yogyakarta, Southeast Asia
  • Asia Catalyst, New York, United States
  • Asia Pacific Transgender Network, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Asian Press Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • Asociación Cnetro de Desarrollo Psicosocial - Taller de Vida, Bogotá D.C., Colombia-Sur America
  • Asociación de Afrodescendientes Nelson Mandela, San Martha-Magdalena, Colombia
  • Asociación de Derechos Humanos Cozumel Trans, Tegucigalpa-Francisco Morazan, Honduras
  • Asociacion Internacional de Familias por la Diversidad Sexual, Barcelona, Spain
  • Asociacion Lideres en Accion, Bogota, Colombia
  • Asociación OTD Chile, Santiago, Chile
  • Asociación Silueta X, Guayaquil, Ecuador
  • Asociacion trans de panamá, Panamá, Panamá oeste
  • Asoprosex, Cartago, Costa Rica
  • Asosiacion de Sindicalistas de Emcali Asosiemcali, Cali, Colombia
  • Associação ILGA Portugal, Lisboa, Portugal
  • Association of Transgender People in the Philippines (ATTP), Manila, Philippines
  • Association Roditeli, Sofia Bulgaria
  • ATHENA Network, Seattle, United States
  • Athlete Ally, United States
  • Auckland Rainbow Community Church, Auckland, New Zealand
  • AWID, Global
  • B.a.B.e. Be active. Be emancipated., Zagreb, Croatia
  • Beijing Gender Health Education Institute, Beijing, China
  • Beijing LGBT Center, Beijing, China
  • BelDefRaC, Evere, Belgium
  • BeLonG To, Dublin, Ireland
  • Benjamin B. Ferencz Human Rights and Atrocity Prevention Clinic, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, New York, United States
  • Beyond Beijing Committee, Kathamndu, Nepal
  • BIMBA, Tarawa, Canada
  • Bissu, Singapore, Singapore
  • bla*sh, schweiz, schweiz
  • Blog Marie accouche là, Brussels, Belgium
  • Blue Diamond Society, Kathamndu, Nepal
  • BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Brave Spaces, Singapore, Singapore
  • Brotherhood FtM, Jinan, China
  • Cambodian Center for Human Rights, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
  • Cangkang Queer, Medan, Indonesia
  • CARE, New York, United States
  • Caribbean Forum for Liberation and Acceptance of Genders and Sexualities (CariFLAGS), Kingston, Caribbean
  • Casa Puerto Rico Cultural Embassy, Los Angeles, United States
  • Case Western Reserve University School of Law Civil Rights and Human Rights Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • Católicas por el derecho a decidir, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • çavaria, Ghent, Belgium
  • Center for Constitutional Rights, New York, United States
  • Center for Gender & Refugee Studies, San Francisco, United States
  • Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE), Washington, D.C. , United States
  • Center for Reproductive Rights, New York, United States
  • Center for Women's Global Leadership, New Brunswick, United States
  • Center Women and Modern World, Baku, Azerbaijan-South Caucasus
  • Central America and Mexico Youth Fund (CAMY Fund), Mexico City, Mexico/Central America
  • Central Phoenix Inez Casiano NOW, Phoenix, United States
  • Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
  • Centre for Supporters of Human Rights, London, United Kingdom
  • Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Cape Town, South Africa
  • Centro de Documentación en Derechos Humanos "Segundo Montes Mozo S.J." (CSMM), Quito Ecuador/América Latina
  • Centro de Estudios de la Mujer, Santiago, Chile
  • Centro de Estudios Superiores en Sexualidad, Mérida YucatanMéxico
  • Centro de Estudos Moçambicanos e Internacionais (CEMO), Maputo, Mozambique
  • Centro de Promoción y Defensa de los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos - PROMSEX, Lima, Perú
  • CEPIA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • CFLAN, Zhengzhou, China
  • China Queer Independent Film, Beijing, China
  • Chirapaq, Centro de Culturas Indígenas del Perú, Lima, Perú
  • CHISA, Lilongwe, Malawi
  • CHOICE for Youth & Sexuality, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Christian Initiative for Relief and Development (CIRD), Juba, South Sudan
  • CILRAP, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians, South Africa
  • Civil Authorize Negotiate Organization (C.A.N-MYANMAR), Myanmar
  • Clínica de Investigación y Acción Social - CLIAS UMNG, Bogotá, Colombia
  • CNCD-11.11.11, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • Coalition Anti Sida (CAS), Bamako, Mali
  • Coalition for Gender Equality, Bucharest, Romania
  • Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR), Surabaya, International
  • COC Netherlands, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Codap, Genève, Switzerland
  • Colectivo Trans-Formacion, Guatemala, Guatemala
  • Colectivo Transfiguración, Managua, Nicaragua
  • Collaborative Centre for Gender and Development, Nairobi, Kenya/Africa
  • colllectif des associations feminines pour le developpement, Goma/Beni, République démocratique du congo
  • Colors Rainbow, Yangon, Myanmar
  • Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines
  • Committee of NGOs on the Status of Women from Latin America and the Caribbean CoNGO CSW LAC, Latin America and the Caribbean, Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Comunidad Homosexual de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua
  • Consortium justice de genre en RDC, Goma, République democratique du congo
  • Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Boston, United States
  • Continental Network of Indigenous Women of the Americas, Phoenix, United States and North America
  • Cornell Center on the Death Penalty Worldwide, Ithaca-New York, United States
  • Cornell Gender Justice Clinic, Ithaca-New York, United States
  • Corporación Humanas, Santiago, Chile
  • Corporación Humanas- Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
  • Corporación Sisma Mujer, Bogota D.C., Colombia
  • Council for Global Equality, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Counseling Line for Men and Boys, Tirana, Albania
  • Counseling Line for Women and Girls, Tirana, Albania
  • CREA, New Delhi, India
  • CUPE Ontario, Markham, Canada
  • Cynara Development Services, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Cyrus R. Vance Center for International Justice, New York, United States
  • Damj for justice and equality, Tunis, Tunisia
  • DécadréE, Genève, Switzerland
  • Democracy Today, Yerevan, Armenia
  • Destination Justice, Phnom Penh, Cambodia/SEA
  • Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era, Suva, Fiji/Global South
  • Dimensión Bi, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
  • Diverlex, Caracas, Venezuela
  • Eastern African Subregional Initiative for the Empowerment of Women-EASSI, Kampala, Uganda
  • Eastern Cape Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Intersex Organisation, East London, South Africa
  • Eastern Cape Paralegal Network Alliance, East London, South Africa
  • Eastern Caribbean Alliance for Diversity and Equality (ECADE), Gros Islet, Saint Lucia
  • Eaualground, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • Egale Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • Eilers-Jacobs Photovoltaik, Oldenburg, Deutschland
  • El Armario Abierto, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Equality Morocco, Rabat, Morocco/MENA
  • Equality Myanmar, Yangon, Myanmar
  • Equality Network, Edinburgh-Scotland, United Kingdom
  • Equality Ohio, Cleveland, United States
  • Equatoria Women Organization, Yei, Juba, South Sudan
  • Equidad de Género, Ciudadanía, Trabajo y Familia, Ciudad de México, México
  • ERA - LGBTI Equal Rights Association for the Western Balkans and Turkey, Belgrade, Western Balkans and Turkey
  • Ethics of Reciprocity, New York, United States
  • Eurasian Women's Network on AIDS, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR), Berlin, Germany
  • Exaequo, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • Excellence Foundation for Training and Scientific Development, Baghdad, Iraq
  • F’INE Pasifika Aotearoa, Auckland, New Zealand
  • FACSDIS, Port-au-prince, Haiti
  • Family Planning 2020 (FP2020), Washington D.C., United States
  • Farug, Kampala, Uganda
  • Federacion Mexicana de Educacion Sexual y Sexologia AC, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Federation for Women and Family Planning, Warsaw, Poland, Poland
  • Féminas Perú, Lima, Perú
  • Feminist Forum on Masculinities, Cambridge, United States
  • FEMMEPROJECTS NPC, Cape Town, South Africa
  • FemWiss, Bern, Switzerland
  • Fiertés Consulting, Francophonie, France
  • Fiji Women's Rights Movement, Suva, Fiji
  • Filastiniyat, Ramallah, State of Palestine
  • Find It Locally, Wandin East-Victoria, Australia
  • FLASSES - Latin American Federation of Societies of Sexology and Sexual Education, Caracas, Latin America
  • FOCUS DROITS ET ACCES, Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • FOKUS -Forum for Women and Development, Oslo, Norway
  • Fondation Agnodice, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Fondo de Acción Urgente para América Latina y el Caribe, Bogotá, Colombia
  • Fondo Semillas, Ciudad de méxico, México
  • Foundation for Male Engagement (FOME) Uganda, Kampala, Uganda
  • FRI - The Norwegian Organisation for Sexual and Gender Diversity, Oslo, Norway
  • FTM Vietnam Organization, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam/South East Asia
  • Fundación Arcoiris por el respeto a la diversidad sexual, Mexico, Mexico
  • Fundación Colectivo Hombres XX, A. C., Ciudad de México, Mexico
  • Fundación Diversencia, Sucre, Bolivia
  • Fundacion Guimel AC, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Fundacion para Estudio e Investigacion de la Mujer, Buenos Aites , Argentina
  • Fundacion Red por la Infancia, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Fundación Yatray, Pereira, Colombia
  • GAYa NUSANTARA Foundation, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • GaySA Radio, Pretoria, South Africa
  • Gehitu, Donostia, Spain/Basque Country
  • Gema Lentera Peduli Tadulako, Palu-Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia
  • Gender Equity Unit, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa
  • Gender Justice League, Seattle, United States
  • Gender Spectrum, San Leandro, United States
  • Genres Pluriels, Brussels, Belgium
  • Girl Fans Group, Guangzhou, China
  • GLAAD, New York, United States
  • Glasgow Human Rights Network, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Global Center on Cooperative Security, New York, United States
  • Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, New York/Geneva, United States/Switzerland
  • Global Faith and Justice Project, Santa Fe, United States
  • Global Fund for Women, San Francisco, United States
  • Global Justice Center, New York, United States
  • Global Network of Women Peacebuilders, New York, United States
  • Global Woman P.E.A.C.E. Foundation, Fairfax, United States
  • Globalizing Gender, New York, United States
  • Gramya Resource Centre for Women, Hyderabad, India/South Asia
  • Greater Seattle Business Association (GSBA), Seattle, United States
  • GROOTS T&T, Tunapuna, Trinidad & Tobago
  • Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
  • Grupo Interdisciplinario en Pro de la Educación Sexual, Ciudad de México, México
  • Guangzhou Gender Center, Guangzhou, China
  • Guyana RainBow Foundation (GuyBow), Georgetown, Guyana
  • Handicap Union of Kurdistan, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • Hanse X-Men, Hamburg, Germany
  • Hanumanteshwar1927tm, Rajpipla, India
  • Haus of Khameleon, Suva, Fiji/Pacific
  • Haven for Artists, Beirut, Lebanon/MENA
  • HAZ - Queer Zurich, Zurich Switzerland
  • Heartland Alliance International, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Helem, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Hinabu Consul Tores, Bogota, Colombia
  • Hivos, The Hague, The Netherlands
  • Horizons Foundation, San Francisco, United States
  • House of Culture for Human Diversity, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
  • House of Empowerment and Awareness in Tanzania, Dar es salaam, Tanzania
  • Human Dignity Trust, London, United Kingdom
  • Human Rights Awareness and Promotion Forum, Kampala, Uganda
  • Human Rights Campaign, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Human Rights Clinic, University of Miami School of Law, Miami, United States
  • Human Rights Educator's Network, Myanmar(Yangon, Ayarwady,Bago,Sagaing, Magway, Naypyitaw, Shan, Chin, Kachin, Kayar, Kayin, Mon, Tanintaryi, Rakhine,Mandalay)
  • Human Rights Institute, WashingtoN, D.C., United States
  • Identidad Profesional, Lima, Perú/Lima
  • IkamvaYouth, Cape Town, South Africa
  • IKAR, Los Angeles, United States
  • ILANUD, San José, Costa Rica
  • ILGA-Europe, Brussels, Europe/Central Asia
  • Impact: Center against Human Trafficking and Sexual Violence in Conflict, Rijen, The Netherlands
  • Innocent Law, LLC, Lawrenceville, United States
  • Instancia Sexo-Genérica Identitaria de Centroamerica ISCA, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá
  • Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti, Boston, United States
  • InterACT: Advocates for Intersex Youth, Sudbury, United States
  • International Association of Democratic Lawyers, Brussels, Belgium
  • International Campaign for Women’s Right to Safe Abortion, London, United Kingdom
  • International Center for Advocates Against Discrimination (ICAAD), New York, United States
  • International Center for Project Development, Baghdad, Iraq
  • International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), Washington, D.C., Global
  • International Family Equality Day, Genève, Switzerland
  • International Human Rights Clinic, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, United States
  • International Human Rights Law Clinic, Boston University School of Law, Boston, United States
  • International Human Rights Program, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • International IDAHOTB Committee, Paris, Global
  • International Indigenous Women's Forum - FIMI, Lima, Peru/Latin America
  • International Justice Resource Center, San Francisco, United States
  • International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), Geneva, Switzerland
  • International Organization for Victim Assistance, Seattle, United States
  • International Service for Human Rights(ISHR), Geneva/New York, Global
  • International Service for Peace (SIPAZ), Sam Cristóbal de Las Casas, Mexico
  • International Women's Development Agency, Melbourne, Australia
  • International Women's Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, Global
  • Intersex Asia Network, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • Intersex Community Trust Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • Intersex Immigrants Network, New York, United States
  • Intersex Philippines, Manila, Philippines
  • Intersex South Africa (ISSA), Johannesberg, South Africa
  • Ipas, Global (Asia, Africa, Latin America & Caribbean)
  • Iranti, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Iraqi Al-Amal Association, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Iraqi Women Network, Baghdad, Iraq
  • IraQueer, Iraq
  • Jamaica Community of Positive Women, Kingston, Jamaica/Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Just Associates (JASS), Washington, D.C., Global
  • Kaleidoscope Trust, London, United Kingdom
  • KNAHR, Kabul, Afghanistan
  • Knowledge and Rights with Young People through Safer Spaces, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Komunitas Sehati Makassar (KSM), South Sulawesi, Indonesia
  • KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  • Kuchu Times Media Group, Kampala, Uganda
  • Kurdistan Women Federation, Erbil, Iraq-Kurdistan
  • Kvinna till Kvinna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Kyiv Pride Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • KyivPride, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • L'Union Féministe Libre (UFL), Rabat, Morocco
  • La commission Indepandante des droits de l homme, Laayoune, Morocco
  • La manta de Puebla A.C., Puebla, México
  • Ladder for rural development, Lilongwe/Ntchisi, Malawi
  • LatinoJustice PRLDEF, New York, United States
  • Laura Saldivia Menajovsky, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Le Culective, Bogotá, Colombia
  • Legebitra, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Leitner Center for International Law and Justice, New York, United States
  • Lembaga Swarna Lentera, Pekanbaru City, Indonesia
  • Lesbian and Gay Federation in Germany LSVD, Berlin, Germany
  • Lesbianas Independientes Feministas Socialistas -LIFS, Lima, Perú
  • LGBT Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • LGBT Rights Network, Yangon, Myanmar
  • LGBT Voice Tanzania, Dar es salaam, Tanzania
  • Lgbti, East london, South Africa
  • LGBTIQ, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Liberia's Iniative for the Promotion of Rights, Identy, Diversity and Equality (LIPRIDE), Monrovia, Liberia
  • Liga Brasileira de Lésbicas, Multiples Cities in the Country, Brazil South America
  • Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
  • Lights of Eirene, Moscow, Russia
  • LINC Foundation, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Los Angeles LGBT Center, Los Angeles, United States
  • M-Coalition, Beirut, MENA
  • MADRE, New York, United States
  • Malawi Network of Religious Leaders Living with or Personally Affected by HIV and AIDS (MANERELA+), Lilongwe, Malawi
  • Malaysia Association of Homosexology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • MÄN - Men for Gender Equality Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden
  • männer.ch, Zürich, Switzerland
  • MANODIVERSA, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
  • Maribyrnong City Council, Carlton, Australia
  • Marie Stopes Australia, Melbourne, Australia
  • Marie Stopes International, London, Global
  • Mas Igualdad Peru, Lima, Peru
  • MASUM, Pune, Pune-Maharashtra, India
  • Mawjoudin, Tunis, Tunisia
  • MC Consultancy, Orange Walk, Belize
  • Media women center for development and democracy (MEWOCEDE), Monrovia, Liberia
  • Men Against Violence, Malta, Malta
  • Men Sector, Gaborone, Botswana
  • Men United for Gender Justice Initiative (MenUnited), Enugu, Nigeria
  • Men’s Resources International, Springfield/Massachusetts, United States
  • MenEngage Global Alliance, Washington, D.C., Worldwide
  • Mens Development Network, Waterford, Ireland
  • Mersin LGBT 7 Renk Eğitim Araştırma ve Dayanışma Derneği, Mersin, Turkey
  • Mesahat Foundation for Sexual and Gender Diversity, Cairo, Khartoum, Egypt and Sudan
  • Metro Manila Pride, Quezon City, Philippines
  • México Unido Contra la Delincuencia (MUCD), Mexico City, Mexico
  • MIRROR Institute for ART and JUSTICE, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Mitini Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Mixedhouse, Taipei, Taiwan
  • MOSAIC, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Movimiento Homosexual de Lima, Lima, Peru
  • Mpact Global Action for Gay men's Health and Rights, Oakland, United States
  • MPV Nederland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Mujer-LGBT Organization, Zamboanga City, Philippines
  • Namibia Diverse Women's Association (NDWA), Windhoek, Namibia
  • NASSAWIYAT Collective, Casablanca, Morocoo
  • National Center for Lesbian Rights, San Francesco, United States
  • National Economic and Social Rights Initiative (NESRI), New York, United States
  • National Lawyers Guild, New York, United States
  • National LGBTQ Task Force, Washington, D.C., United States
  • National Queer Asian Pascific Islander Alliance, New York, United States
  • National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, Washington, D.C., United States
  • NECDO, Kabul, Afghanistan
  • NESMA Consulting, Mortsel, Belgium
  • Network of Zimbabwean Positive Women, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security, New York, United States
  • NGO-Coordination post Beijing Switzerland, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Nobel Women's Initiative, Ottawa, Canada/International
  • Nonviolent Initiative for Democracy Inc (NID), Needham, United States
  • NYC Anti-Violence Project, New York, United States
  • Oasis, Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo
  • Oceania Pride, Suva, Fiji
  • OII Chinese, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • ONDEDE, Bangalore, India
  • OneLove VI, Frederiksted-U.S. Virgin Islands, United States
  • Open Culture Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan
  • Open Mind Spectrum Albania (OMSA), Tirana, Albania
  • Organization of Women's Freedom in Iraq (OWFI), Baghdad, Iraq
  • Orma Bradfield, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • ORQOA-Oriental Queer Organisation Austria, Vienna, Austria
  • Out-Right Namibia, Windhoek-Khomas, Namibia
  • OutRight Action International, New York, United States
  • Pacific Human Rights Initiative, Apia, Samoa
  • Pacific Sexual and Gender Diversity Network, Suva, Pacific
  • Pan African Positive Women's Coalition-Zimbabwe, Kadoma, Zimbabwe
  • Pari o Dispare, Rome, Italy
  • PARSA, Kabul, Afghanistan
  • Participatory Development Action Program, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Peace Movement Aotearoa, New Zealand
  • Pelangi Campaign, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • People Like Us Satu Hati, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • PFLAG National, Washington, United States
  • Phelisanang Bophelong(PB), Leribe Lesotho, Lesotho
  • Philippine Government Implementing Panel for the Philippine Government-Moro Islamic Liberation Front Peace Accords, Metro Manila, Philippines
  • Philippine Society of Sexual & Reproductive Health Nurses Inc., Manila City, Philippines
  • Pink Cross, Berne, Switzerland
  • Plan International, Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom (HQ)/Global
  • Planet Ally, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Planned Parenthood Federation of America, New York, United States
  • Planned Parenthood of Metropolitan Washington D.C., Washington, D.C., United States
  • Plate-forme des Femmes du Nord-Kivu pour un Developpement Endogene (PFNDE NK), Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
  • PNUD, San José, Costa Rica
  • POCAAN, Seattle, United States
  • Polo Democrático Alternativo, Bogotá, Colombia
  • Population Connection, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Prima Organization, Utrecht, Nethderlands
  • Proceso de Comunidades Negras en Colombia, Nacional, Colombia
  • Progressive Youth for Ability Development Organization, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Projek Dialog, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Promundo-US, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Public Services International, Ferney-Voltaire, France
  • Queer Here, New York, United States
  • Queer Tiers, Pago Pago-American Samoa, United States
  • Queeramnesty, Zürich, Switzerland
  • Queering Education Research Institute, New York, United States
  • Radha Paudel Foundation, Nepal, Nepal
  • Rainbow Alliance of Lesotho, Maseru, Lesotho
  • Rainbow Nation, Brussels, Belgium
  • Rainbow Pride Foundation, Suva, Fiji
  • Rainbow Street, Berkeley, CA, United States
  • Rainbow Sudan, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Rainbowhouse, Brussels, Belgium
  • Realizing Sexual and Reproductive Justice (RESURJ), International
  • Red Centroamerica de Hombres trans, Centroamerica y Caribe, Centroamerica y Caribe
  • Red de Activismo e Investigación por la Convivencia REACIN, Caracas, Venezuela
  • Red de Educación Popular Entre Mujeres America Latina y Caribe REPEM LAC, América Latina (Bogotá, Lima, Ecuador, Mexico, Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Asunción)
  • Red de Mujeres Afrolatinoamericanas Afrocaribeñas y de la Diáspora, La Paz, Bolivia
  • Red Temática de la Diversidad Sexual LGBTIQ de Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua
  • Rede Afro Lgbt, Brasilia, Brasil
  • Rede Social de Justiça e Direitos Humanos, São Paulo, Brasil
  • Redtrans Nicaragua, Managua, Nicaragua
  • Reef Sisters, Airlie Beach-Whitsundays, Australia
  • Reforma Trans PUCP, Lima, Peru
  • ReFrame, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Reinserta AC., Ciudad de México, México
  • RFSL, the Swedish Federation for LGBTQ Rights, Stockholm, Sweden
  • RHTC, Chisinau, Moldova
  • Rights 4 Her, Kampala, Uganda
  • Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights, Washington, D.C., United States
  • Rothschild Rights, New York, United States
  • Rural women's association Alga, Kant, Kyrgyzstan
  • Russian LGBT network, Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • Rutgers, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • S.H.E, East London, South Africa
  • SAFAIDS, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • Saheli Women's Resource Centre, New Delhi, India
  • Samoa Faafafine Associatiob, Apia, Samoa
  • Sanctuary Studios Inc, Bracebridge, Canada
  • Sangama, Bangalore, India
  • Sangsan Anakot Yaowachon Development Project, Chiangmai, Thailand
  • Santa Clara Law - International Human Rights Clinic, Santa Clara, United States
  • SANTE SEXUELLE Suisse, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Save the Children Australia, Melbourne, Australia
  • Sayoni, Singapore, Singapore
  • Seattle International Foundation, Seattle, United States
  • SeCoDév, Geneva, Switzerland
  • SEED Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Sensoa, Antwerp, Belgium
  • Seta Lgbti Rights in Finland, Helsinki, Finland
  • Sex og Politikk (IPPF Norway), Oslo, Norway
  • Shandong Agricultural University Rainbow Society, Tai'an, China
  • Shanghai Nv'ai, Shanghai, China
  • ShePlusPride, Singapore, Singapore
  • Shirkat Gah - Women's Resource Centre, Pakistan/Transnational (Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta)
  • Shiyida Kaleidoscope, Jinan, Qingdao, China
  • Simavi, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Sindicato Unitario Organizado Nacional de la Administración de Justicia de Venezuela (SUONTRAJ), Caracas, Venezuela
  • Social Health and Empowerment, East London, South Africa
  • Social Policies Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Studies Association (SPoD), Istanbul, Turkey
  • Social, Health and Empowerment Feminist Collective of Transgender Women in Africa, East London, South Africa
  • Society Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination (SASOD), Georgetown, Guyana
  • Society for Feminist Analyses AnA, Bucharest, Romania
  • Society Of Fa’afafine In American Samoa (SOFIAS), Pago Pago, American Samoa
  • Solidarity with Egypt LGBTQ+, Port Said, Egypt
  • Sorensen Center for International Peace and Justice, New York, United States
  • Soroptimist International, Cambridge-England, Global
  • Southern Africa Litigation Centre (SALC), Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Specialization on Gender and Public Policy, Columbia University SIPA, New York, United States
  • SSD Analyse & Développement, Chardonne, Switzerland
  • Stop AIDS in Liberia, Monrovia, Liberia/West Africa
  • STRAP, Manila, Philippines
  • Success Capital Organisation, GaboroneBotswana
  • Support for Women in Governance Organiztion (SWIGO), Juba, South Sudan, South Sudan
  • Suriname Men United (SMU), Paramaribo, Suriname
  • Swiss Rainbow Families Association, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Swiss Trade Union Confederation, Bern, Switzerland
  • Swisspeace, Bern, Switzerland
  • Synergía - Initiatives for Human Rights, Washington, D.C. , Cross-regional
  • Taller de Comunicación Mujer, Quito, Ecuador
  • Tanggol Bayi (Defend Women) - Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines
  • TARAB - NYC, New York, United States
  • Tendo's World (Arts & Health), KAMPALA, Uganda
  • TERRE DES FEMMES Switzerland, Bern, Switzerland
  • The Center for Socio-Legal Research, at the Universidad de Los Andes School of Law, Bogotá, Colombia
  • The Commonwealth Equality Network, London, Pan-Commonwealth
  • The Community Health Rights Network, Kampala, Uganda
  • The Global Interfaith Network for People of All Sexes, Sexual Orientations, Gender Identities and Expressions, Johannesburg, Global
  • The Global Justice Institute, New York, United States
  • The Human Rights and Gender Justice (HRGJ) Clinic at the City University of New York (CUNY) School of Law, New York, United States
  • The Initiative for Equal Rights, Lagos, Nigeria
  • The Institute for Studies of Society, Economy and Environment (iSEE), Hanoi, Vietnam
  • The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), Geneva, Switzerland/Global
  • The International Women's Initiative, London, United Kingdom
  • The International Women’s Health Coalition, New York, Global
  • The Lamp Light, Lashio-Nothern Shan State, Myanmar
  • The Lesbian and Gay and Association of Liberia (LEGAL), Monrovia, Liberia
  • The Muslim Alliance for Sexual and Gender diversity, Washington, D.C., United States
  • The SCENE, Brisbane, Australia
  • The Silver Lining Foundation, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
  • The South African Institute for Advanced Constitutional, Public, Human Rights and International LAw (SAIFAC), a centre of the University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Togentherness for Equality and Action-TEA, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Trans Research, Education, Advocacy & Training [TREAT], Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
  • Trans-Austria, Wien, Austria
  • Trans-Fuzja Foundation, Warsaw, Poland
  • Trans-masculine person, Coimbatore, India
  • TransAction, Auckland, New Zealand
  • TransAkcija Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • TransFoorum, Tallinn, Estonia
  • Transgender Equality Network Ireland (TENI), Dublin, Ireland
  • Transgender Europe, Berlin, Germany
  • Transgender Law Center, Oakland, United States
  • Transgender Network of Liberia, Monrovia, Liberia
  • Transgender Network Switzerland, Zürich, Switzerland
  • Transonline, Beijing, China
  • TransSmart Trust, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • TransWave Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica
  • TransX, Vienna, Austria
  • Tranz Network Uganda Limited, Kampala, Uganda
  • Triangle Project, Cape Town, South Africa
  • UCTRANS Network, Global
  • Uganda Network on Law, Ethics HIV& AIDS (UGANET), Kampala, Uganda/East Africa
  • UK Lesbian and Gay Immigration Group, London, United Kingdom
  • UNAMID, Elfasher, Sudan
  • UNESCO, San Jose, Costa Rica
  • Union de l'Action Féministe, Meknès, Morocco
  • UNION SINDICAL DE EMCALI USE, Cali, Colombia
  • United and Strong Inc., Castries, Saint Lucia
  • United Belize Advocacy Movement, Belize, Belize
  • Uniting Network, Sydney, Australia
  • Universidad del Pacífico, Lima, Peru
  • Universidad Externado de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia
  • Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada
  • Urban Morgan Institute for Human Rights, Cincinnati, United States
  • Urgent Action Fund, New York, United States
  • Urgent Action Fund for Women's Human Rights, New York and Oakland, Global
  • Urgent Action Fund- Latin America and the Caribbean, Bogotá, Latin America and the Caribbean
  • US Human Rights Network, Atlanta, United States
  • UTOPIA_BXL, Brussels, Belgium
  • UTSOPI, Brussels, Belgium
  • Venezuela Diversa, Venezuela, Venezuela
  • VIKA, Melbourne, Australia
  • Vikalp (women's Group), Vadodara, India
  • Voice of Women Organization, Herat, Afghanistan
  • Voices of Women in Western Kenya, Kisumu-Nyanza, Kenya
  • Voluntary Health Association of Punjab, Chandigarh, India
  • WECF International, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • White Ribbon Australia, North Sydney, Australia
  • White Ribbon Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • Wimen entrepreneur and Enviromental Links, Momrovis, Lineria
  • WIN, Washington, D.C., United States
  • WO=MEN Dutch Gender Platform, Den Haag, Netherlands
  • Women and Media Collective, Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • Women Enabled International, Washington, D.C., Global
  • Women for Women's Human Rights - New Ways, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Women's Council in Denmark - Kvinderådet, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Women's Empowerment for Change, Kingston, Jamaica
  • women's enews, New York, United States
  • Women's Federation for World Peace, Australia, Melbourne, Australia
  • Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights, Manila, Tanzania
  • Women's Health and Equal Rights Initiative, Abuja FCT, Nigeria
  • Women's Initiatives for Gender Justice, The Hague, The Netherlands
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Afghanistan Section, Kabul, Afghanistan
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Australia, Canberra, Australia
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Cameroon, Douala, Cameroon
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Chad, N'djamena, Chad
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Ghana Section, Accra, Ghana
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Lebanon, Lebanon, MENA
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Philippine Section, Philippines
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) Swedish section, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Women's Refugee Commission, New York, United States
  • Women's Rights Centre, Paramaribo, Suriname
  • Women's Solidarity fund, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Women’s Environment and Development Organization, New York, United States
  • Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom Aotearoa New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Women´s Link Worldwide, Bogota, Madrid, Colombia and Spain
  • Womens Federation for World Peace, Melbourne, Australia
  • Womens International League for Peace and Freedom, Geneva and New York, International
  • Woodhull Freedom Foundation, Washington, D.C., United States
  • World Association for Medical Sexology, Caracas, Venezuela-Latin America and Europe
  • World Association for Sexual Health, Minneapolis, United States
  • XY Spectrum, Belgrade, Serbia
  • YouAct - European Youth Network on Sexual and Reproductive Rights, London, Europe
  • Young Out Here, Singapore, Singapore
  • Youth Coalition for Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Ottawa, Canada
  • Youth Voices Count, Bangkok, Thailand/Asia Pacific
  • YPEER Asia Pacific Center, Bangkok Thailand/Asia Pacific
  • Zambia Network of Religious Leaders Living with or Personally Affected by HIV and AIDS, Lusaka, Zambia
  • Zimbabwe Civil Liberties and Drug Network, Zimbabwe

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References

1 – The Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC, Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-based Crimes (2014), https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/otp-Policy-Paper-on-Sexual-and-Gende....

2 – See for example, UN Secretary-General, Protection against violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity UN Doc. A/73/152 (12 July 2018); the Inter-American Court of Human Advisory Opinion OC-24/17 (November 24, 2017) par. 32; CAT Committee, Ninth annual report of the Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, UN Doc. CAT/C/57/4 (22 March 2016); CEDAW, General Recommendation 33, UN Doc. CEDAW/GC/33 (3 August 2015); CAT General Comment 3, UN Doc. CAT/C/GC/3 (19 November 2012); CEDAW, General Recommendation 28, UN Doc. CEDAW/GC/28 (16 December 2010); General Comment 2, UN Doc. CAT/C/GC/2 (24 January 2008); ICESCR, General Comment 16, UN Doc. E/C.12/2005/4 (11 August 2005); Secretary-General, Question of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, UN Doc. A/56/156 (3 July 2001); ICCPR, General Comment 28, UN Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.10, (29 March 2000); Report of the Secretary-General: Implementation of the Outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing Platform for Action) (3 September 1996); CEDAW, General Recommendation 19, UN Doc. A/47/38 (1992).

3 – The Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC, Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-based Crimes, 3 (2014), https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/otp-Policy-Paper-on-Sexual-and-Gende....

4 – Id. citing the World Health Organization (WHO), What do we mean by “sex” and “gender”?.

5 – UN Women & UN Team of Experts Rule of Law/Sexual Violence in Conflict, UNDP, Accountability for Sexual Violence in Conflict: Identifying gaps in theory and practice of national jurisdictions in the Arab region, 4 (2018).